The industry generally believes that due to market monopoly and technological blockade, it is impossible for sensor industrial development to obtain core technologies and key processes from developed countries. It requires top-level design of industry and industry development, and formulation of national-level overall planning and Strategic policies should be supported.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, mankind has entered the information age in an all-round way, setting off another new wave of informationization with characteristics of the times and practical significance. The deep integration of information technology and traditional industries has become an industrial revolution led by technological innovation and aimed at application. It has laid a good foundation for the adjustment and transformation and upgrading of traditional industries, and provided a broad market space and development opportunities.
Through innovation, it forms and presents a multi-industry interaction based on digital technology, Internet of Things, big data, cloud computing, 3D and virtual reality, artificial intelligence, new materials, "Internet +" and many other advanced technologies. Synergy, the interpenetration of regions, fields, industries, and daily life, the integration of industry and capital, and a period of industrial transformation driven by market applications.
Information technology is the general term for the collection, management and processing of information, and an orderly data processing technology based on hardware. It mainly includes sensor technology, computer technology, and communication technology. The information system is a whole of software and hardware including input, storage, processing, output and control. It is a man-machine integrated system for the purpose of processing information flow.
The development of information technology has played an important role in the progress of people and society and economic development. It has brought huge impacts and changes to people's ideas and lifestyles, and has had a profound impact. At the same time, it has played a positive role in changing production methods and improving productivity. Measuring the level of informatization of a country by the degree of application of information technology has become an important indicator of the comprehensive national strength of a country.
Sensors are the foundation and core of innovation and development
Sensors, computers, and communications are known as the three pillars of information systems. The quality of sensor technology has become an important indicator of a country’s technological level and whether it is at the commanding heights of international strategic competition. It is a core basic technology that developed countries attach great importance to and compete for development.
Sensors are widely used in metallurgy, petroleum, chemical industry, electric power, transportation, water conservancy, new energy, electronics, environmental protection, household appliances, aerospace, aviation, military weapons and equipment and other fields of national economy, national defense, scientific research, etc. They are related to and affect technological innovation and national defense. , Economic and social security plays an important role in the current industrial restructuring and transformation and upgrading, and has very important strategic significance for occupying the commanding heights of strategic emerging industries.
Americans believe that human beings have entered the 21st century and fully entered the information age. In a sense, they have entered the age of sensors.
Sensors, communications, and computers are known as the three pillars of modern information systems. The development and application of sensor technology has become an important indicator of the degree of informatization of a country, as well as an important indicator of the level of scientific and technological development of a country.
The sensor industry has been recognized at home and abroad as a high-tech industry with a promising future. It has attracted the world's attention for its high technical content, good economic benefits, strong penetration, and broad market prospects.
In modern control systems, the sensor is at the position of the interface connecting the object under test and the test system, constituting the main "window" for system information input, providing the system with the original information necessary for control, processing, decision-making, and execution, which directly affects and Determine the function of the system.
The sensor can directly contact the measured object or indirectly. Many control system functions cannot be realized because it is difficult to collect and obtain the information of the controlled object, which has become an obstacle to the development and promotion of system technology, and also the source and collection of big data and the biggest obstacle to the development of Internet of Things technology and development.
If the computer is likened to the human brain, and communication is likened to the human nervous system, then the sensor is the "facial senses" and "skin", which are responsible for the function of sensing and acquiring all the information and data in the natural environment. Western developed countries pay more attention to sensors and other technologies, and gradually form differences in the development of global high-tech and basic technologies for military weapons and equipment.
In the early 1970s, the West ignored the development of sensor technology and presented an embarrassing state of "developed brain" and "slow facial features", which severely restricted and affected computers and communication technologies. Since the mid-1970s, various countries have accelerated the development of sensors.
Since the early 1980s, the United States, Japan, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom have formulated relevant plans and listed them as the focus of long-term development plans, devoting manpower, material resources, and key investment to research and development, at an annual rate of 20% to 30%. The rapid development and long-term key support have significantly improved the sensor technology, and in 2003 it was listed as one of the top ten new technologies that have the most impact and change the world in the 21st century.
The US federal government research report pointed out that since 2010, the budget was 6.9 billion US dollars for sensor basic technology and application research, which it called "SensorRevolution" (sensor revolution). Americans believe that: "The 1980s was the computer age, and the 1990s was the Internet age; the 21st century has entered the age of sensors. Through sensors, the physical world is connected and an electronic nervous system is given."
At present, there are about 26,000 kinds of sensors in the world. With technological innovation, new varieties and types continue to appear. There are currently about 14,000 species in my country, accounting for about 1/2 of the world's total. Most of them are conventional types and species. There are still a large number of species shortages and gaps in special high-tech fields such as medical treatment, scientific research, microbiology, and chemical analysis.
There are more than 6,500 manufacturers engaged in sensor development and production in the world, including more than 1,000 in the United States, Europe, and Japan, more than 800 in Russia, and more than 2,700 in other countries and regions. In terms of market sales, the United States ranks first, accounting for 35% of total sales, Japan about 20%, and Germany about 15%. The three countries account for 70% of the world market. The growth rate is expected to exceed 15% in the next five years, and it is still a high-growth industry.
The sensor has industry characteristics such as technology-intensive, strong penetration, multiple varieties, small batches, flexible use, and wide application fields. The basic and synergistic characteristics are outstanding. It is especially suitable for "mass entrepreneurship and innovation". With the "Made in China 2025" , "Internet +" action plan and the development of big data, cloud computing, and smart cities, the strategic position of the sensor industry as the basic unit of information acquisition has become increasingly prominent.
Industrialization faces market opportunities and challenges
The three major factors of market, technology and policy will drive the rapid development of the sensor industry. With the development of electronics, materials, physics, chemistry, etc., especially the maturity and application of MEMS process technology, multifunctional, miniaturized, digital, systematic, networked, and intelligent sensors that meet market needs continue to emerge, forming sensors Develop new hot spots.
At present, the development of sensor technology from a single physical type to a function, technology composite integration, and miniaturization, multi-function, digitalization, intelligence, systemization, and networking has become the main trend of future technology and industrial development.
There are more than 1,700 enterprises and institutions engaged in the development, production and application of sensors in my country. The industrial categories are basically complete. The total annual output of sensitive components and sensors has exceeded 2 billion, and the sensor products have reached 10 categories, 42 subcategories, and more than 6000. Variety. Among them, mainstream products in the six categories of sound-sensitive, force-sensitive, photosensitive, gas-sensitive, magnetic-sensitive, and RFID already have the industrialized technology foundation and market application demand space, and can form industrialized scale production.
Moreover, driven by the application requirements of the Internet of Things in various industries, and forced by the coordination of different system technologies and intelligent standards, networked and intelligent sensors will become another major trend in the development of technology and industry in the future.
In terms of application, whether it is aerospace vehicles, trains, high-speed rails, automobiles, or mobile terminals, including robots, it is a "platform" of multi-technology fusion and aggregation. It is a "platform" for installing sensors. Regarding how many sensors are installed, there is no big data without sensors.
The rapid development of high-speed rail will bring a huge market for sensors. According to the national plan, railway operations will reach 200,000 kilometers by 2030 (121,000 kilometers in 2015), of which high-speed rail operations will reach 45,000 kilometers (19,000 kilometers in 2015). The high-speed rail is equipped with a large number of sensors to complete the monitoring of vehicles, track lines, natural environment, etc. With the development and implementation of CRRC's "Rail Traffic Safety Assurance Technology Project", it will become a new growth point for high-end smart sensors.
Take another automobile as an example. The number of sensors used in ordinary cars exceeds 100 per car, and the sensors used in high-end cars exceed 200 per car. According to the national plan of "the number of new energy vehicles will reach 5 million by 2020", new energy vehicles will be Bring a huge market with rapid growth for sensors.
For another example, there are internal sensors and external sensors in a robot. The internal sensor is the relationship between the internal movable joints. A large amount of data needs to be acquired and transmitted through the sensor; the external sensor is realized through its facial features and external windows. . The performance and function of different types and functions of robots are undoubtedly determined by how many sensors are installed, and at the same time what type and quality of sensors are installed.
Sensors can not only determine the level of technology and performance of these "platforms", but also can monitor the operation of the "platform" itself by acquiring changes in various parameters such as sound, temperature and humidity, pressure, flow, magnetic field, gas, and shape patterns. The status and safety conditions enable the "platform" to operate safely, reliably, and in a healthy and stable manner. Combined with the system architecture and software service model, a complete "intelligent" and "intelligent" system is formed to meet the needs of intelligent management in the industrial field.
The IoT demonstration projects at this stage include smart grids, smart transportation, environmental monitoring, public safety, smart homes, smart hospitals, smart high-speed rail, battlefield perception, airport fences, food processing, perception petrochemicals, smart agriculture, modern logistics, smart buildings, More than 400 demonstration projects such as biopharmaceuticals, government services, smart fire protection, industrial monitoring, elderly care, community medical care, flower cultivation, water system monitoring, food traceability, enemy investigation, and intelligence collection are officially included in the Internet of Things catalog. The main markets for similar sensor technologies and products undoubtedly provide ample room for imagination for the innovation and development of sensor technology.
In addition, sensors can not only detect the macro and micro worlds, but can even perceive various information about our lives, and obtain big data such as blood glucose, blood lipids, blood oxygen, pulse, ECG, brain pressure, brain electricity, body temperature.
Our country has "entered into an aging society fast and running", and family services will be a big problem in the future. Technology to assist the elderly has become another major direction of innovation in the future. Research by related institutions shows that in the future, from wearables to home smart terminals and service robots, a market scale of 8 trillion to 10 trillion yuan will be formed.
The function of the future service robot is very powerful, life guidance, entertainment games, chronic disease care, health control, emergency assistance, etc. are all needed. Therefore, finding personalized health sample values and analysis models is the difficulty and key to application technology innovation, the bottleneck leading to "intelligence" and "intelligence", and the goal, task and direction of innovation.
Combined with the system architecture and service model, a complete "intelligence" and "intelligence" system is formed to meet the health management needs of different human bodies. The architecture of this model and mode is a key point and difficulty for the Internet of Things technology and the realization of intelligent intelligent manufacturing, and it is also a core problem that smart sensors urgently need to solve.
From a hierarchical point of view, smart sensors are undoubtedly a common basic technology under system integration and network architecture, as well as another "bottleneck" in current system applications and technological innovation.
In order to break the barriers between industry and application, and solve the problems of industry docking market and common technology industrialization, during the "13th Five-Year Plan" period, my country formulated a long-term development strategy for the national sensor industry;
The "Three-Year Action Guide for the Smart Sensor Industry (2017-2019)" formulated by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology will soon be issued, clarifying that the development goal and direction of the sensor industry is intelligent sensors, and formulating a corresponding industrial development roadmap, confirming MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) The industrial development path of the combination of technology and integrated circuit technology and the policy support principle based on market application.
These plans and policy promotion will become an inevitable choice for realizing the safe, independent and controllable industrial development of the industry, which can not only promote the rapid and healthy development of my country's sensor industry, but also enhance the ability and core competitiveness of my country's industrial independent development.
In-depth contradictions and problems in the development of domestic industries
For a long time, my country's sensor industrialization has not been highly valued, and it is incompatible with market demand and role. Enterprises are all in the stage of small-scale production, with problems such as aging process and unreasonable structure, and lack of basic conditions for industrialized production. Core technologies and products remain in the initial stage of laboratory or small batch production, and it is difficult to form and generate economies of scale.
There are more than 1,700 domestic enterprises, colleges and universities, and scientific research institutions that have different levels of research and development, small batch production and manufacturing of sensor products. Because the proportion of non-professional and non-mainstream products is relatively high, the output value is relatively low, and the degree of attention is not enough. Therefore, enterprises with an output value of more than 100 million yuan account for only 5% of the total, and less than 3% of professional manufacturers with a complete product range.
Compared with foreign countries, there is a big gap in product quality, technological level, production equipment, enterprise scale, market share and comprehensive competitiveness. The development of new products is still nearly 10 years behind, and the level of industrialization is 10 to 15 years behind.
According to industry statistics and forecasts, my country's sales of sensitive components and sensors in 2014 exceeded 120 billion yuan. In 2015, the demand could reach about 65.29 billion pieces, with a growth rate of more than 18%, breaking through 130 billion pieces.
About 60% rely on imports, and about 80% of core chips rely on imports. Almost all MEMS sensors used in the Internet of Things rely on imports. As a result of my country's continuous growth of the huge market being controlled and monopolized by foreign countries for a long time, it not only caused the loss of economic benefits, but also caused serious impacts and threats to the national political, economic, military and other information security.
At the same time, it severely restricts and affects the overall development and improvement of my country's Internet of Things, big data, cloud computing, "Internet+", and even smart cities, especially the military industry and weaponry. The practical problems and contradictions are particularly prominent.
In addition, my country’s national strategic planning and industrial policy did not mention the corresponding height to give sufficient attention and support and cultivation, resource allocation deviated from industry development, and insufficient policy attention are also the main reasons for the large gap in sensor industrialization compared with international ones. One.
This has been for a long time, the industry is fragmented, the scale is small, the leading role of leading enterprises and leading talents is lacking, the industrial chain is incomplete, the degree of industrial integration and agglomeration is not high, the hollowing of the industry is increasing, and there is a big gap compared with developed countries. . The outstanding problems and contradictions are as follows:
One is the lack of resource matching and attention, and the problems of difficult loans and high financing costs exist for a long time. The overall technical equipment is backward, the level of automated production and testing is low, and the production process is called "industrial handicrafts" and the product quality is poor.
However, the investment demand for process technology equipment is relatively large, and enterprises are unable to carry out technological transformation and equipment capacity improvement. These problems directly affect the improvement of the overall capacity of scientific research and production technology, and seriously affect the process of industrialization.
Second, it is difficult to transform scientific and technological achievements, and scientific research and development are out of touch with industrial production.
Technological innovation resources are in scientific research institutes, not in the hands of enterprises, and enterprises have insufficient independent innovation capabilities. The transformation of scientific and technological achievements formed lacks channels and bridges for transformation. Achievements and industrialization form two sides, and the actual application level is low. Scientific research results and industrialization The combination mechanism and system are not sound enough, and the industrial development stamina and sustainability are not enough.
The third is the deviation of the orientation of talent flow, which lacks the influence of leading figures and the role of demonstration. The first is the lack of scientific research personnel for basic theoretical research and technology development;
Secondly, the professionalization, batching and practicality of talent training deviate greatly from sensor industrialization. Finally, the flow of talents cannot flow into small and medium-sized enterprises such as sensors. The concentration of talents is not high, and there is a lack of cultivation of leading talents and outstanding entrepreneurs. Play a leading role.
Fourth, the industrial policy support is insufficient, and the tax burden of enterprises is too heavy. The sensor industry has high technology content, talent and technology intensive, development costs are greater than other industries, enterprises are overburdened, taxation and other policies are less in the same high-tech industry, the scale of enterprises is small, and various industrial policy support conditions are not adaptable and difficult Obtain project funding support.
Fifth, it has been impacted by imported products for a long time, the market fairness and order are chaotic and the barriers are too high. The supporting market in mature fields has been monopolized and squeezed by foreign countries for a long time, causing domestic enterprises to lack competitive advantages in production scale, variety, quality, and price, lack of market response speed, personalized service capabilities, and lack of scale effects and driving effects.
In addition, excessive marketing and product sales costs, too many constraints and requirements, and high barriers to entry are also restrictive factors for entering a virtuous circle.
Create a "dual ecology" industrial environment to promote multi-technology integration and coordinated development
The industry generally believes that due to market monopoly and technological blockade, it is impossible for sensor industrial development to obtain core technologies and key processes from developed countries. It requires top-level design of industry and industry development, and formulation of national-level overall planning and Strategic policies should be supported. The specific recommendations are the following basic principles and measures:
The first is to enhance the strategic position, strengthen overall planning, and set the sensor as a "national industrial development key target", as a "national strategic" project, and listed as a key support and priority development content in the "13th Five-Year Plan". Set up a "special fund for the development of sensor industrialization" to encourage small and medium-sized enterprises to develop products with strong professionalism, characteristics and expertise, and encourage and promote the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the direction of industrialization.
The second is to build and promote the national and industry technology research and development, testing and standard intellectual property public service platforms jointly established by the government, universities, scientific research institutes, and enterprises. Establish a sensor standard committee, formulate a sensor standard system, and speed up standard construction. Promote and unite enterprises, universities, research institutes, industry associations, and supporting institutions to establish industry alliances.
The third is to create a good ecological environment for the sensor industry and create a China International Sensor Industrial Park. Optimize the industry development environment, form complementary advantages of industry resources, promote the integration of industry, university and research, and create opportunities for upstream and downstream integration.
Through industrial aggregation, integration, and mergers and acquisitions, in areas with prominent domestic industrial advantages and relatively concentrated areas, China's "Sensor Valley", an international sensor industrial park with clear technology and product characteristics, a complete industrial chain, and international market capabilities, will be created.
Form a complete function of the industrial structure of normalized support and service and the six-dimensional integration of politics, industry, learning, research, application, and service to realize industrial agglomeration and scale effect, and form a complete industrial chain, reasonable structure, and international influence. Industrial clusters with a scale of output value promote the development of industrialization and the improvement of the overall capacity of the industry.
Its purpose is to make innovation truly effective, to make the industry truly unique, to enable the region to have internationally competitive brands and advantages, to establish the concept of an international market, to establish a foothold in the international market, and to build the region into a region with international advantages and characteristics. Regional business cards.